Starting a Sole Proprietorship in Portugal (Empresário em Nome Individual, or ENI): A Comprehensive Guide

Digital masterpiece depicting the entrepreneurial journey in Portugal with a map backdrop, showing a path from Lisbon to Porto. Icons along the path symbolize steps to establish a sole proprietorship, with a diverse group of individuals at the start, embodying the start of their business ventures.

Have you ever considered venturing into entrepreneurship but felt held back by uncertainties or a lack of know-how? You’ll be pleased to know that establishing your own business is entirely feasible by initiating your activity as a sole proprietorship.

In this article, we delve into the intricacies of this business structure, outlining its definition and initiation process, as well as its advantages and potential risks.

Understanding the Concept of an Individual Entrepreneur

An individual entrepreneur, known as Empresário em Nome Individual (ENI) in Portuguese, represents a business entity where a single individual assumes sole ownership. Typically geared towards small-scale enterprises with modest investments and minimal risk exposure, this legal form proves to be a straightforward option for initiating a business venture, requiring no initial capital investment.

In essence, an individual entrepreneur operates independently, issuing green receipts (recibos verdes) for their services, devoid of any employment contracts. As outlined in the Practical Guide to the New Self-Employed Workers Regime provided by Social Security, this classification encompasses individuals engaged in commercial or industrial activities, including those managing individual establishments with limited liability.

Rights and Benefits

Individual entrepreneurs are entitled to various benefits and supports provided by Social Security. These include unemployment benefits, subject to a minimum contribution period of two years, granted under involuntary cessation of business operations due to financial constraints or other unforeseen circumstances.

Additionally, the state offers a spectrum of support measures for individual entrepreneurs, ranging from sickness benefits and parental allowances to disability pensions and old-age pensions, ensuring a safety net for those navigating the entrepreneurial landscape.

Initiating Your Venture

Embarking on the journey of an individual entrepreneur involves a simple two-step process:

  1. Fill out the declaration of commencement of activity either at a local finance office or conveniently online via the Finance Portal.
  2. Complete and submit the self-employed worker form (Mod. RV1000-DGSS) to qualify for the Social Security self-employed worker regime.

It’s noteworthy that for first-time inclusion in this regime, the effectivity commences on the first day of the 12th month following the activity’s initiation.

Taxation Obligations

Individual entrepreneurs are subject to various tax obligations, including contributions to Social Security, quarterly declarations of income tax (IRS), and potential liability for value-added tax (VAT), depending on turnover and eligibility for exemptions.

Advantages of Sole Proprietorship

1. Simplicity of Processes: Establishing and closing a sole proprietorship involves minimal bureaucratic hurdles compared to other business structures.

2. No Initial Capital Requirement: The absence of mandatory minimum capital facilitates the commencement of activities, relieving entrepreneurs of financial burdens.

3. Access to Business Banking Services: Sole proprietors can streamline their financial management through business accounts, such as those offered by Revolut Business, providing various advantages like fee-free transfers, multi-currency capabilities, and simplified expense management.

4. Business Autonomy: Sole proprietors enjoy full control over their business operations, retaining decision-making authority across all aspects.

5. Reduced Risk: With no reliance on external financing, sole proprietorships prove ideal for low-risk business ventures with minimal investment requirements.

6. Low Taxation Costs: Taxation under the IRS entails a simplified declaration process, with the option to choose between the simplified regime or organized accounting based on sales volume.

7. VAT Exemption: Sole proprietors may qualify for VAT exemption under the simplified taxation regime, provided their annual turnover remains below a certain threshold.

Risk Considerations

Despite its advantages, sole proprietorship entails inherent risks, primarily the lack of distinction between personal and business assets. In cases of financial liabilities exceeding company assets, personal assets may be at stake, including those of the spouse in community property regimes.

Differentiating Individual Entrepreneurship and Self-Employment

While both individual entrepreneurship and self-employment represent forms of self-employment, the former encompasses ownership of a business entity, allowing for the sale of goods in addition to service provision. The distinction lies in the broader scope of activities undertaken by individual entrepreneurs compared to self-employed individuals, who primarily provide services.

📝 Read more: Becoming Self-Employed in Portugal (Trabalhador Independente): A Comprehensive Guide

Bottom line

Establishing a sole proprietorship in Portugal offers a viable pathway for aspiring entrepreneurs seeking simplicity, autonomy, and flexibility in their business endeavors. By understanding the nuances of this legal structure and navigating its obligations and benefits, individuals can embark on a fulfilling entrepreneurial journey within the vibrant landscape of Portugal’s business environment.


  1. Instituto da Segurança Social, I.P. (No publication date). Trabalhador independente – novo regime.
  2. Segurança Social. (No publication date). Início.
  3. Pedro, S. (2023, December 27). Como te tornares num Empresário em Nome Individual? Simulador líder de Crédito e Telecomunicações | ComparaJá.pt.
  4. Autoridade Tributária e Aduaneira. (n.d.). Portal das Finanças.

📝 Disclaimer: This content is provided for informational purposes and spans various topics. While we aim for accuracy with AI-enhanced, human-curated information, we do not guarantee correctness and are not liable for inaccuracies. This is not professional advice; consult a professional for specific guidance. When you purchase through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission. Learn more

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